Archive for February, 2011

Feb 26, 2011 Posted Under: Other

What is Insomnia and It’s awailable Remedies

It is unavoidable and perfectly normal that we cannot sleep well from time to time, but chronic insomnia is another story. Not only will it affect our performance and productivity, chronic insomnia suppresses the immune system and leads to other disorders such as depression, chronic fatigue, headaches, and heart disease.

Deep Breathing is one of those natural health remedies for insomnia that people tend to scoff at. Why? Because they don’t think taking deep breaths will help to cure insomnia. Although that is partly true, and deep breathing won’t likely cure your insomnia completely, it can actually help you to get to sleep faster.

Insomnia varies from person to person and so is the treatment. Sleep disorder or insomnia can be caused by many different things. For some people, it is a physical condition caused by hormonal or chemical imbalances. For others, insomnia is caused by emotional or mental issues. A particular treatment or a remedy which has yielded positive result to someone may not be beneficial for other.

The sounds and pulses from the sleeptrack will make their way into your brain and start lulling you to sleep as soon as you begin to hear them. Many have described the experience as getting their brain “massaged”. Basically, just turn on the soundtrack and prepare to have your brain “massaged” until you are fast asleep. Seriously, have you ever seen a lazier insomnia remedy than this? I think not.

Are you having trouble getting a decent nights sleep and suffering from Insomnia? Most people can handle the odd night without a full nights rest. If your insomnia carries on for too many nights, then some good insomnia remedies will be just what you need. You need to get at least six or seven hour of sleep a night to get you through a day without drifting off. A lack of sleep can lead to host of health related problems.

Many people have problems with insomnia because they bring their work home with them and then can’t stop thinking about it and worrying. You can bring work home with you if needed to but don’t bring it into your bedroom. Your bedroom needs to be kept clutter free and clean. This will help you relax and not think about work.

If you find yourself wanting to take a nap during the day, DON’T! Naps, although a convenient way to get some quick rest, are not helpful when it comes to your natural sleeping rhythm. By taking a nap, you will be thrown off your normal sleeping pattern and it will be much more difficult to get to sleep when you really need to.

When sleeping difficulties hit you hard, you will have to find a way to relieve yourself. Many people would elect using conventional sleeping pills and other prescription drugs. Some, however, prefer the more natural way for a change. Some people see homeopathic sleep aids as the better alternative to a source of anxiety and irritation. These remedies bring advantages without the inauspicious side effects in your body and are seen as not merely quick fixes, but as long-term cures.

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Feb 25, 2011 Posted Under: Headaches

Hypnosis for Migraine Headaches

The idea of migraine hypnotherapy might seem like a contradiction in terms. How does your subconscious affect the physical nature of your body? How does the mind control pain? Often a common over the counter pill does the trick when it comes to headaches. Migraines, however, are much more than a mere headache.

Migraines are incapacitating, as anyone who has ever suffered from one will tell you. There are medications and other forms of treatment for migraines but in spite of these ways of dealing with migraines, some people are out of commission days due to this dreadful headache. To understand why hypnosis is one of the most successful treatments for migraines it is helpful to understand the nature of migraines.

Migraines are triggered by changes in your body that can be set off by stress, medications, certain foods, poor sleep patterns, and other factors that vary from individual to individual. The symptoms include debilitating pain. This can include nausea and vomiting which may be the body’s reaction to the pain that seems to throb throughout the entire body. Light can also negatively affect migraine sufferers and they often need to lie still in the dark to alleviate the discomfort. Canadian pharmacy generic drug

Since migraines can last for days and since they often seem impervious to pain medications, it is imperative that a faster and more effective treatment be utilized. Migraine hypnosis has been studied and shown to be highly effective – more than three times the people treated with hypnosis stopped having migraines than those who stopped having migraines after being given the prescription medication prochlorperazine.

Prochlorperazine is used for treating mental and emotional disorders, such as psychotic disorders including schizophrenia. It controls severe nausea and vomiting and moderate to severe pain. Basically it covers the painful side effects of a migraine. Speaking of side effects, the side effects of prochlorperazine include body and facial tics.

Hypnosis on the other hand does not have side effects. It is also a lot easier on your body than any heavy-duty medications. The relaxation techniques included in migraine hypnosis work on the stress factor and other such triggers. Hypnosis can help with techniques that circumvent your usual migraine inducing elements.

Besides being less expensive and less dangerous than medication, migraine hypnosis is more effective. It reaches into your subconscious and works on helping you develop ways of getting around the stress and habits that cause migraines. If you suffer from migraine headaches, you owe it to yourself to try migraine hypnotherapy.

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Feb 23, 2011 Posted Under: Mental Health

How To Care for an Adult With Autism

The ability of an adult with autism to live a functional life outside of a group home is a direct result of the level of needs-based education the autistic person received as a child. If a child with autism is instructed, preferably on a one-to-one basis, the socially acceptable responses to situations, they are generally able to function quite well outside of autism care homes. Even with appropriate childhood training to prepare autistic children for life in normal society, they often find themselves as adults living at home with their parents or in care facilities.

Unfortunately for anyone diagnosed with autism, it is an extremely difficult disease to live with. There is some debate as to general advice that is acceptable for all cases of autism, as the disorder is considered a spectrum disorder. Each patient diagnosed with autism reacts to the disease in an extremely individual manner. Some patients need intensive personal care for their entire lives, while other patients are brilliant in one or two areas and live highly functional lives. There are support groups around the country who exist to assist adults with autism in helping themselves outside of a care home setting. Past research indicates adults with autism are better suited working in positions which utilize their specific strengths. As adults with autism generally have very limited short-term memory, but have excellent long-term memory, they can exist quite well in society when working in strength specific positions.

Although special services are sometimes necessary to assist adults with autism in performing simple, day-to-day, common tasks, most adults with autism can live quite successfully outside of a care home setting. Even those residing in autism care homes can work independently outside of their care home and earn money to live successful lives. Research has indicated the most common concern among adults with autism is the worry that other, “normal”, people will see their behavior as weird or unacceptable. With the appropriate training in how to react to social situations, this worry can be significantly lessened. The inability to react appropriately to social situations is not something that is optional in a person with autism; it is an inherent symptom of the disease itself. There are a large number of autistic adults in society today which have educated backgrounds and even college degrees. These people are considered brilliant in their field and have learned to overcome any social oddities in their behavior.

It is extremely important for everyone to educate themselves on the symptoms and behaviors associated with autism. Modern medicine and technology have not prevented the incidences of diagnosed autism in children from rising to 1 in every 166 children. With such a high rate of diagnosed childhood autism, it is highly likely a person will meet or know someone in their life with the disease. Autistic care homes are not available in abundance in the United States and many adults with autism still reside at home with their parents. Autistic people need special attention the same as any person with a mental or physical handicap. Though they can be significantly different from normal people, with the proper attention and training they can live highly successful and independent lives.

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Feb 22, 2011 Posted Under: Diseases

Coping With Lupus And Its Effects

The common condition, Lupus, is a major re-occurring disorder recognized due to discomfort in numerous areas of the body. This fits in the category of disorders which includes rheumatism, multiple sclerosis, child diabetes, and also scleroderma.

The most typical kind of lupus is actually systemic lupus erythematosus. It is believed that lupus impacts one out of two thousand individuals, therefore there are actually millions of people globally which are suffering from SLE. Systemic lupus is often a complicated and often confusing ailment which could affect just about any cell structure and potentially an organ within the human body, among them the epidermis, muscle tissue, all bodily joints, blood as well as bloodstream, the lungs, cardiovascular, renal system and also the brain. There are additional forms of lupus that primarily impact the epidermis. Some people acquire drug-induced lupus in reaction to various medicines for the treatment of other disorders. Most of these signs and symptoms vanish once the individual ceases using the prescription medication.

Lupus isn’t an infectious disorder. A single person is unable to obtain it via someone who has it, and no precautions need to be taken while being close to an individual who has lupus disease.

Among 10% of instances, a number of prescription medications, including the ones utilized for abnormal heart-beat as well as hypertension, can result in signs and symptoms of SLE. (These indicators generally disappear once the prescription medication is ceased.) This particular result happens to be observed frequently around older individuals and this is normally known as drug-induced lupus. Within the additional 90% involving SLE examples along with just about all cases of DLE, the reason and/or factors behind the condition aren’t particularly known.

Despite the fact that previous research involving lupus indicate that it’s an autoimmune condition, the results offers very few answers for the many questions behind lupus. The explanation is the fact that the sources of immune system conditions are not adequately comprehended. However, there exists some information in regards to what medical professionals suspect what takes place during the growth of lupus.

Genetics has been suspected to be a reason, despite the fact that it is unknown exactly what part it plays. Many experts have confirmed that an individual that has a close family member which possesses SLE can be somewhat more probable to suffer from the condition (approximately 10%) compared to an individual which doesn’t. This probability greatly improves in the event that an individual is the sibling of an identical twin that has SLE. SLE’s increased occurrence within many ethnic peoples furthermore indicates that genetics plays a part. Nevertheless, virtually no gene (genetic aspect) has recently been particularly connected to the actual generation regarding lupus.

The very fact which females tend to be more probable to acquire lupus compared to males indicates that bodily hormones can also be related to this particular condition.

A number of environmental impacts are suspected to be an important factor with the oncoming of lupus. It’s thought that autoimmune tendencies in certain people could possibly be induced through harmful bacteria, viruses, severe emotional stress, direct sunlight, specific medications, and even food chemicals. However, not every single person will get lupus given that they have been infected with a certain virus, stressed out, from prescription medication, or perhaps consumed a particular type of food.

The specific antibodies active in the autoimmune response are known as “auto-antibodies.” These are considered to respond exclusively with the help of specific chemical ingredients within the tissues located in the body, generating inflamed joints as well as harm to internal organs.

The particular indicators and symptoms of lupus range significantly in various people, within many areas of one’s body as well as the level of intensity. Typically the discomforts can also appear and disappear, and can even disappear altogether for extended periods of time. Despite the fact that lupus develops considerably more regularly in females compared to males, the implications in men are comparable to those amongst females.

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Feb 19, 2011 Posted Under: Heart Disease

Diets To Lower Cholesterol

Most people don’t realize that one very effective way to combat high cholesterol is with a simple lifestyle change: their diet. There are many variations of diets to lower cholesterol. You just have to look at what you eat now and what small changes you need to make.

Including more plant-based foods is one small “tweak” to can make to your existing diet. Adding fruits, vegetables, legumes (nuts), and whole grains are great additions or replacements for high cholesterol foods. These types of are generally low in saturated fat and calories. However, they contain higher amounts of fiber and starch. They are naturally low in dietary cholesterol. However, there are some bakery goods to stay away from: some sweet breads and other foods that are made with high-fat and high-cholesterol milk, eggs, and butter.

If you’re looking to keep your triglycerides down and/or you’re trying to improve your low HDL (remember, that’s the good cholesterol), then your carbohydrate intake should be no more than 55% to 60% of your total daily calories. When your body takes in too many carbs, it will tell the liver to increase production of cholesterol. This can lead to higher cholesterol levels.

You know that increasing plant-based foods is one step to a diet to lower your cholesterol. Another change can be to decrease the amount of animal-based foods. Many animal based foods are high in saturated fat and cholesterol. Research has shown that taking in saturated fat, more so than cholesterol itself, can lead to higher cholesterol levels. You should limit or avoid foods like red meat with visible fat, organ meat (like liver), goose, duck, processed meats (like sausage, bologna, salami). Even food like butter, cheese, and even high-fat ice cream can be bad for high cholesterol.

Another type of fat to avoid is trans-fat. Lately, there has been a shift at many chain restaurants to stay away from oils that have trans-fat (like KFC and Burger King). That doesn’t mean that the food is now healthy. It’s just that the trans-fat cooking process has been replaced. Trans fatty acid, trans fat, has been shown to increase the LDL levels, which we know is BAD. You should learn how to read labels on foods. Look for words like hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, and/or shortening. These are your clues that this product is high in trans fat. Also look for the section of the nutritional guide and look for the section for saturated fat.

So, with just a few simple tweaks, you can start your journey to a healthier life style. Diets that lower cholesterol don’t have to be fancy or bland. You just need to know what to add and what to take out of your current diet.

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Feb 18, 2011 Posted Under: Asthma

Omron Nebulizers

Omron Nebulizers are among the best nebulizers to be used in hospitals and homes today. Omron is a brand to reckon with and utilizes advanced and the latest technologies to improve the management and treatment of asthma, COPD and other respiratory conditions. Omron Nebulizers are portable nebulizer systems which the patients can use on their own and effectively, to treat their asthma and other respiratory problems.

In this article, we will discuss about some models of Omron Nebulizers, which are readily available in the market.

  • CompAir Compressor Nebulizer, Model – NE-C25


  1. Compact sporty design for easy transport
  2. Patented pump design for powerful and quiet operation
  3. Includes carrying case with accessory compartment
  4. Breath-enhanced nebulizer design for shorter treatment times
  5. 5 year limited warranty
  6. UL and CSA listed
  7. Support

This is one of the most affordable Omron Nebulizer models and is a dependable alternative for patients suffering from asthma, COPD or other respiratory problems. The compact look of the CompAir Compressor Nebulizer makes it extremely easy to carry and use. Patients can carry the handy case whenever they are traveling from one place to the other. This unique design of the Omron Nebulizer delivers high quality performance in a shorter treatment time.

Price: $36.99

  • CompAir Elite Compact Compressor Nebulizer, Model – NE-C30


  1. Compact and easy to use
  2. High quality durable design and manufactured by Omron
  3. Air tube features easy to grip air plugs
  4. Includes carrying case with accessory compartment
  5. AC adapter and optional Rechargeable Battery make unit suitable for home or travel
  6. “Ready to go” system maximizes convenience
  7. 5 year limited warranty

This is one of the most well packaged Omron Nebulizers. The CompAir Elite Compact Compressor Nebulizer comes with a carrying case, a nebulizer kit, mouthpiece, air tube, extra filters, child mask, multi-lingual instruction manual, and training DVD in Spanish and English. The nebulizer unit, however, has a limited 5-year warranty. The best feature is that the optional rechargeable battery and battery charger gives you the convenience of carrying it anywhere. The thoughtful inclusion of a multi-lingual instruction manual and instructional DVD in English and Spanish, speaks volumes about Omron’s class.

Price: $69.99

  • MicroAir Portable Nebulizer with Vibrating Mesh Technology (V.M.T.), Model – NE-U22V


  1. Smallest size of any electronic nebulizer
  2. Convenient alternative to Metered Dose Inhalers (MDI)
  3. Lightweight, 6 ounces with 2 “AA” batteries
  4. Tubeless and cordless operation provides unmatched portability and ease of use
  5. Delivers medication to the last drop to maximize benefit of treatment
  6. Delivers undiluted medications to shorten treatment time
  7. Delivers most solution medications, including Albuterol, Alupent, Brokosol, Isuprel, Pulmicort Respules, Proventil, Ventolin, Xopenex, DuoNeb and Intal

As the name suggest, the MicroAir Portable Nebulizer is the world’s smallest electronic nebulizer. This Omron Nebulizer uses Vibrating Mesh Technology to safely administer liquid medicines for patients suffering from asthma, COPD or other respiratory disorders. The small size of the nebulizer makes it a favorite with the patients, as they can carry the case wherever they go. The performance of this small nebulizer is more powerful than other tabletop compressor nebulizers, hence, guarantees effective relief from the disease.

Price: $259.95

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Feb 17, 2011 Posted Under: Headaches

Migraine Headaches

Do you feel like your head is about to burst? Is it throbbing like crazy? Do you feel these for several days? Most probably you have a migraine headache.

Migraine is one of the most common types of headaches in the world. In America, there are over 25 million people who are diagnosed with it. Sometimes it is extremely painful sufferers find themselves in emergency rooms. Others have to take regular medications to control the occurrence.

There is no distinct cause of migraines. It could be hereditary. It may also be caused by environmental factors such as pollution and stress. It is also common among people who are suffering from depression and anxiety. These individuals often lack serotonin, which improves mood. When serotonin is low, the common effect is migraine.

Signs of Migraines

Migraines do provide you with early warning signs. First, you will experience seeing auras, which are actually distortions of your visual perception. You will be more sensitive to light, and you will feel tingling in your arms and legs. If the migraine is too severe, you cannot look directly into any type of light. You will also vomit and feel nauseated. It is also possible you do not like to listen to sounds.

Migraines are debilitating. Once they occur, your world suddenly stops. You prefer staying in dark corners and lying down. You do not want to eat or move. Worse, migraines can occur for days or months without relief.

How to Control Migraine

There is no known cure for migraine headache yet, but you can co-exist peacefully with it.

The conventional treatments to migraine are medications. These include NSAIDs or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin and ibuprofen. Some of them are available over the counter.

NSAIDs are effective for treating light to moderate migraines, not severe migraines. Moreover, they should not be taken over long periods of time, as they often lead to gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers.

You can also minimize migraines through natural methods:

Meditation. Meditation relaxes your muscles and promotes proper flow of blood, especially in the brain.

Meditation is also highly effective if you are suffering from stress disorder, depression, and anxiety. It makes you more grounded in the present and prevents worries about the future. Meditation encourages proper breathing too.

This technique can be used along with subliminal messages or affirmations.

While you are meditating, you can play affirmations in the background, with lines like the following:

  • I find myself in such a good state.
  • I can feel my body completely relaxed and at peace.
  • I remove all the worries, apprehensions, and fears from my mind.
  • I am blocking all the stresses that are causing me headaches.

To prevent migraines, make sure you can meditate and play subliminal messages regularly. The best times to do these are early in the morning and late in the evening, when you are about to rest.

Avoid foods and drinks that can cause migraine. Caffeine, alcohol, chocolates, and food with MSG should be avoided as much as possible.

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Feb 16, 2011 Posted Under: Mental Health

Five Easy Ways to Tackle Stress

It is becoming difficult these days to meet the high demands of life and still ensure work-life balance. The advent of technology has thrown open a myriad of opportunities, where people can choose to work night shifts or from home. However, we still struggle to lead a happy life. What is the purpose of toiling hard? Should you let your stress overtake you? Managing stress is imperative as unattended stress could lead to depression and lack of confidence. There are some simple and practical ways to handle stress.

While at stress, your mind fancies many things like: being alone, idle, think negatively, being frustrated and angry and finally makes you feel “why do such things happen only to me”. However, the simple ways to tackle stress is “Do not let your mind conquer you”. So let us take it one by one:

1. Meet People: This would be difficult if you are an introvert. However, being an introvert is also an area you should work. So push yourself to socialize. Choose the appropriate set of people / friend to spend your time. There are two ways of doing this: 1) Meet a huge crowd and talk about different topics including the happy old days 2) Meet your close friend and discuss the problem you have in hand. However, when you do this make sure you do not succumb to their advice and go unstoppable. Suit yourself and handle it on your own. If you feel your friend has not understood your problem do not invest your time in making him understand, this will lead to frustration. So choose a friend who can match your wavelength.

2. Work Out: This is one of the best ways to keep your mind fresh. You do not have to force yourself to a gym. Brisk walking for 45 minutes in the morning is the best medicine for a stressed mind. The reason to do this in the morning is that it lifts up your confidence and builds the stamina for you to manage the entire day. Yoga is another way of de-stressing your mind. Make this a routine, you will see the difference yourself.

3. Be Positive: It would be difficult to bring your mind to the stream of thinking positive however, it is important for you to focus on this area. Meditation is one of the best ways to bring your mind under control or focus. Believe that if there were a problem there would be a solution. Look at your problem from a third person’s eye. Think about what you would have suggested if your friend had walked up to you discussing the same problem. This would be the ideal solution for you. Boost up your confidence by talking more positively to people. Encourage others, you will feel strong. Keep yourself occupied. Take up more challenges or additional work, every success reinstates the lost confidence.

4. Pep yourself: Go for a makeover. Change your wardrobe if possible. Shed those extra pounds and get some new attire. Go shopping. If you are a fashion freak, make sure you line up those fashions clothing in your wardrobe. This will again boost your confidence. Pamper yourself. Buy things that you like and would cherish or flaunt for a while. By doing this you will divert your mind to your likes.

5. Resolve: To solve a problem you need a stress-free mind. Now that you would have almost cleared your mind off stress, make sure you solve the problem at hand. When you do this, your mind will be 100% stress free. Diverting your mind in different activities will help solve the stress to an extent but does not solve it completely. Your mind will circle back to the unattended problem whenever it finds time. So it is very important to take the right step to solve your problem and never get into the groove of taking stress for the same problem again.

You may see that all five ways to handle stress revolve only around you. You will not have people walking up to you to sympathize or spend time with you to pep you up. So it becomes more important for you to focus and take the right step to de-stress your mind. There is a solution to every problem. Just believe it and stay focused.

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Feb 12, 2011 Posted Under: Other

Women And Solutions for Hair Loss

It is hard to imagine that women can be associated with each other. Well after all, people would always associate women with thick and long locks so they are not supposed to suffer from hair problem. But then the truth is that women can lose their hair as well and the bad news is that hair loss can happen to even young women although most of the time the older women in their menopausal stage are the ones most prone to hair thinning women.

Maybe hair loss in women could appear unnoticed because most women do not have the same pattern of hair problem as it is in men. Most men end up bald or with the large hairless areas. Women on the other end who suffer from the most common form of hair loss do not get bald but they usually suffer from diffused hair thinning. The hair loss becomes apparent though if one would take a closer look at the scalp. Those women who have conditions have partially visible scalps.

There are several reasons that could be attributed to hair loss in women. It was thought in the past that the major reason for female is that some women are genetically predisposed to DHT, the hormone that shrinks the hair follicle. This could be true for men but the research shows that there are other reasons for women. Aside from the genes, hair loss women happen because of low estrogen levels, stress and illness.

Regardless of what the reason for the hair loss, the impacts on the emotions of affected women could be tremendous. To some, losing the hair can greatly damage the self esteem and the ability to relate with others socially. This could especially occur when it happens so suddenly. There are times when women with this problem could panic and they would try just about any hair solutions that they would stumble upon and they are expected to go through depression just before they are able to accept the condition. In worst cases, attempts to kill oneself may also happen which is why those who are suffering from this condition should be taken care of by a strong support group.

But then again there are many hairloss treatment product manufacturers who know how desperate women could become and that is why all of these hair loss products that offer help and solution to hair issues are coming out and made available in the market. There are some of these that are really working and kudos to these products. However, one should be careful about scam products for they will never do any good. Of course the suffering that comes with hair loss is bad enough already so getting lured by these fake products can make someone feel even worse.

Before planning on trying out a product solution to hair loss women, one should have to make some time off to research about it. It would be good to make a research of the ingredients and how reputable it is for helping patients and what hair experts have to say about them. Taking the time off to research about the product would definitely pay off as it will not expose you to unnecessary risks.

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Feb 11, 2011 Posted Under: Other

Dangerous Effects of Smoking on Human Body

Tobacco is considered as the greatest cause of preventable deaths in the United States and throughout the world. According to the American Heart Association and the National Health Interview Survey of 2008, 24.8 million men and 21.1 million women in the United States are smokers. Tobacco smoking causes many diseases affecting major organs of the body including heart, brain, and lungs.

Nicotine is the most active and important chemical component that causes dangerous effects in human body. It is a major risk factor for heart attacks; lung and mouth cancers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Here, we will discuss about some of the dangerous effects of smoking on human body.

Oral cancer
It was revealed by the National Institutes of Health that a variety of cancers including cancers of oral cavity, esophagus, larynx, and lungs are caused by cigar smoking. It was observed that around 90% of the patients with oral cancer are smokers. Laryngeal cancer is caused about 20 to 30 times more in smokers than non-smokers. Smoking causes inflammation around the teeth which is termed as periodontitis. Adherent white plaques and patches occur on the membranes of oral cavity and is called as leukoplakia.

Effect on heart rate and blood pressure
Increase in rate of heartbeat and a sharp rise in blood pressure are the immediate effects of smoking on heart and blood circulation. The heart rate increases by about 30 times during the first 10 minutes of smoking. Nicotine causes the blood vessels to get narrowed resulting in rise of blood pressure. The oxygen carrying capacity of the blood is decreased by carbon monoxide which increases heart rate. Long term effects of smoking include increase in levels of fibrinogen and cholesterol in blood increasing risk of heart attacks. Coronary heart disease (CHD), Peripheral vascular disease (PVD), aneurysm, artherosclerosis, and others are caused by the heart and circulation attacks.

Effect on lungs
More than 80% lung cancer cases are accounted by tobacco. Inability of cilia to remove the tar content of cigarette smoke leads to lung and laryngeal cancer. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is caused by smoking and is characterized by shortness of breath; persistent cough with sputum; and damage to lungs including emphysema and chronic bronchitis.

Effect on liver
Numerous toxins are present in the cigarettes that lead to chronic inflammation and scarring of liver. This may increase the risk of diseases such as liver cancer, liver fibrosis, and Hepatitis B and C. Chemicals such as N-Nitrosodiethylamine, N-Nitrosopyrrolidine, and arsenic present in cigarettes are responsible for cause of liver tumors. The ability of liver to detoxify dangerous substances gets diminished by smoking.

Effect on brain dysfunction
Nicotine reaches the brain within 10 seconds after inhalation. Carotid artery is the main artery that supplies blood to the brain. Fatty substances are built up in the carotid artery due to cigarette smoking. This decreases the supply of blood to the brain cells and results in stroke called as cerebral thrombosis. The risk of this stroke in smokers is about 1.5 times to that of non-smokers. Thickening and clotting of blood in brain may also be caused due to smoking.

Effect on digestive system
Harmful effects of smoking can be seen on all parts of the digestive system. The decrease in strength of lower esophageal valve allows the acids of stomach to reflux into esophagus. This situation is termed as heartburn. The movement of bile salts from intestine to stomach is also promoted by smoking. Smoking increases the rate of formation of peptic ulcers.

Effect of skin and hair
Collagen, a protein in skin, keeps the skin elastic. As nicotine affects collagen, elasticity of the skin is reduced. The tiny capillaries which nourish the skin are also constricted by nicotine, leading to formation of wrinkles. Healing process also gets affected by smoking and longer time is taken to heal a wound. The immune system is suppressed by the nicotine which leads to increase in susceptibility of viral infections of skin.

Premature thinning and graying of hair is seen in smokers. The chances of people becoming bald are twice in smokers than in non-smokers. Premature graying of hair is also 3 to 6 times common in smokers.

Effect on bone and muscle
Healing of fractures is delayed by smoking. Blood flow to all tissues is restricted by nicotine. Mostly it is restricted in newly forming tissues, which are involved in bone repair. The chemicals of tobacco are responsible for inhibition of development of new muscle and bone tissue cells. The risk of osteoporosis is increased by smoking. Significantly lower bone densities are seen among women smokers and are more likely to suffer fractures. The risk of osteoporosis among women is 50% more in smokers than non-smokers.

Effect on respiratory system
Entry of chemicals of tobacco into mouth and trachea causes irritation and chemical burns. It causes sore throat and pain. Cancer causing properties of certain chemicals may cause burns on trachea resulting in throat cancer. Many fatal diseases are caused by smoking including cancers of mouth, nasopharynx, larynx and lung. Increased risk of asthma, cough, bronchitis and pneumonia are seen in children who are exposed to passive smoking.

Psychological effects
The feeling of euphoria and calmness are considered as the root cause for addiction to cigarettes. Nicotine triggers the release of dopamine in brain giving pleasure reaction. The psychological effects of smoking are dependent on the physical effect of nicotine on brain. When a person quits smoking, the psychological desire for cigarettes can last for many years, whereas the physical desire can be overcome within 2 weeks.

Smoking causes many dangerous effects on human body. American Cancer Society estimated that 168,000 Americans died of cancer due to tobacco smoking in 2007. Yearly smoking causes 1 in 5 deaths in America. Hence, it is necessary to take serious steps for eradication of smoking habits. Many educational programs have to be conducted to make people aware of the harmful effects of smoking on human body.

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